Given the data, they concluded that social scientists could not possibly have picked a worse population from which to draw broad generalizations. Researchers had been doing the equivalent of studying penguins while believing that they were learning insights applicable to all birds.
If you read a lot of cog. sci. books, then the beginning of the book will be cover many of the same topics, but it picks up with some more distinct information once some of the basic stuff is covered. I particularly enjoyed chapters 5 and 6.
5. The Brain Is a Team of Rivals
6. Why Blameworthiness Is the Wrong Question
Chapter 5 goes into depth about how the brain has multiple functions and parts which overlap to provide solutions for different contexts which often overlap. For example, memories aren't just stored by one component of the brain. Memories can be stored by multiple parts in different contexts. e.g. hippocampus for everyday things and amygdala for more tragic experiences, but they often work together. The author than talks about how advances in AI could be made if computer science took a more biological approach.
Chapter 6 is very thought provoking. It addresses freewill and criminal behavior. Specifically how the justice system and ultimately society's view on criminal behavior doesn't current fit in with our current understanding of how the brain makes decisions. The author make an interesting case that punishment should take an evidence-based approach.